# The Casimir Effect as Explained by Quantum-Geometry Dynamics Quantum mechanics essentially describes the Casimir effect as being caused by virtual photons which spring into existence out of the nothingness of the vacuum to impart the plates of the apparatus and pushing them towards each other. The introduction of virtual particles, which is required if quantum mechanics is to explain the phenomenon, also creates a number of problems (though not seen as problems within the framework of quantum mechanics) among which is the violation of the principle of conservation of energy and the consequential infinite vacuum energy.

QGD also attributes the Casimir effect to free preons(+); the single elementary particle of matter the theory requires. Thus QGD’s explanation of the effect does not violate the law of conservation or introduce any of the problems that arise from the assumption of virtual particles.

As we know, preons(+) are isotropically distributed throughout quantum-geometrical space. They constantly bombard all material objects. Consider the figure on the left where we have a plate ${{R}_{a}}$. The plate divides quantum-geometrical space into two symmetrical regions ${{R}_{1}}$ and ${{R}_{2}}$ . Since the regions are symmetrical, and since the preonic density is the same in both, the resulting momentum of the preons(+) simultaneously hitting the plate from ${{R}_{1}}$ is equal that that from ${{R}_{2}}$ . That is: $\left\| {{{\vec{P}}}_{{{R}_{1}}}} \right\|=\left\| {{{\vec{P}}}_{{{R}_{2}}}} \right\|$. The momentum of the free preons(+) hitting the plate cancel each other out.

But when we put two plates in close proximity as is the Casimir effect apparatus, we divide quantum-geometrical space into three regions; ${{R}_{1}}$ , ${{R}_{2}}$ and ${{R}_{3}}$.

In this arrangement, the same number of preons(+) hit ${{R}_{a}}$ from ${{R}_{1}}$ as does the number of preons(+) that hit ${{R}_{b}}$ from ${{R}_{3}}$, but the number of preons(+) that hit ${{R}_{a}}$ from ${{R}_{2}}$ is equal the number of preons(+) from ${{R}_{3}}$ minus the preons(+) that are absorbed or reflected by ${{R}_{b}}$ . Hence, if $\left\| {{{\vec{P}}}_{{{R}_{1}}}} \right\|$ and $\left\| {{{\vec{P}}}_{{{R}_{2}}}} \right\|$ are respectively the resultant momentum of the preons(+) hitting ${{R}_{a}}$ from ${{R}_{1}}$ and ${{R}_{2}}$ , then we must have $\left\| {{{\vec{P}}}_{{{R}_{1}}}} \right\|>\left\| {{{\vec{P}}}_{{{R}_{2}}}} \right\|$. And, if $\left\| {{{\vec{P}}}_{{{R}_{1}}}} \right\|-\left\| {{{\vec{P}}}_{{{R}_{2}}}} \right\|\ge x{{m}_{{{R}_{a}}}}$, then net momentum imparted to ${{R}_{a}}$ will be $\Delta \left\| {{{\vec{P}}}_{{{R}_{a}}}} \right\|=x{{m}_{{{R}_{a}}}}$ . In other words, if ${{R}_{a}}$ was free, it would be pushed towards ${{R}_{2}}$ and its speed will increase by $\displaystyle \left\lfloor \frac{\left\| {{{\vec{P}}}_{{{R}_{1}}}} \right\|-\left\| {{{\vec{P}}}_{{{R}_{2}}}} \right\|}{x{{m}_{{{R}_{a}}}}} \right\rfloor$. Similarly, ${{R}_{3}}$ would move towards ${{R}_{2}}$ at $\displaystyle \Delta {{v}_{{{R}_{b}}}}=\left\lfloor \frac{\left\| {{{\vec{P}}}_{{{R}_{3}}}} \right\|-\left\| {{{\vec{P}}}_{{{R}_{2}}}} \right\|}{x{{m}_{{{R}_{a}}}}} \right\rfloor$.

## Cosmological Implication

If QGD is correct then the Casimir effect must affect all objects which divide quantum-geometrical space asymmetrically. It follows that the Casimir effect must affect objects at the cosmic scale as well; pushing cosmic structures towards each other and thus contributing to the dark matter effect.

(The above is an excerpt from Introduction to Quantum-Geometry Dynamics)